Mânăstirea Tismana – Tismana Monastery

Istoricul manastirii:

Situat la 30 km vest de orasul Tg. Jiu si la 5 km N de comuna Tismana, acest asezamant monahal este printre cele mai vechi din tara Romaneasca, avand un rol primordial in mentinerea credintei ortodoxe de-a lungul veacurilor. Asemenea unui castel medieval cu bastioane la colturi, Manastirea Tismana este asezata pe varf de stanca, pe muntele Starmina, inconjurata de culmi impadurite si stancoase. In stanca din sudul bisericii se afla si pestera cuviosului Nicodim (26 dec. 1406), care a dus viata de schimnic. Acesta a intemeiat manastirea in secolul al XIV-lea cu sprijinul material al domnitorilor Basarabi, Radu I (1374-1385) al fiilor sai, Dan I (1385-1386) si Mircea cel Batran (1386-1418), fiind ridicata pe locul unui schit din lemn. S-a sfintit la 15 august 1376 cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului”, care s-a pastrat pana in zilele noastre. Este atesta­ta documentar de un hrisov al domnitorului Dan I, datat 3 octombrie 1385. Arhitectura manastirii Tismana este in stil bizantin, specific secolului al XIV-lea, apropiindu-se ca arhitectura de bisericile contemporane din Macedonia si Muntele Athos, reprezentand caracteristici constructive romanesti. Actuala biserica a manastirii este zidita direct pe stanca in plan triconic, cu turle pe naos, pronaos si pridvor. Catapeteasma este din stejar (1765-1766), in stil post-brancovenesc, cu ornamente florale suflate in aur.
De-a lungul timpurilor, datorita deselor prigoane ale paganilor asupra tarii noastre, Manastirea Tismana a suferit mai multe distrugeri si transformari, multe refaceri si donatii din partea voievozilor Basarabi si a unor boieri instariti, manastirea fiind ctitorie voievodala si un puternic loc strategic. In 1520 voievodul Neagoe Basarab a acoperit biserica cu plumb; in 1541 domnitorul Radu Paisie a facut chenarele si usile bisericii mari; Matei Basarab a facut biserica mica a spitalului manastiresc (1650), clopotnita si a daruit un clopot mare; marele ban al Craiovei Cornea Brailoiu a refacut chiliile si casele egumenesti, de asemenea a facut mari donatii manastirii; Jupaneasa Stanca Glogoveanu a refacut pictura (1733 si 1766) si usile bisericii (1782). Importante danii si obiecte de cult a facut Constantin Brancoveanu.
Biserica mare a fost pictata in 1564, de zugravul Dobromir din Targoviste, actiune subventionata de marele vornic Nedelea. Este stil bizantin, in fresca aplicata peste prima tencuiala cu fresca monocroma. In anul 1732 a fost refacuta pictura din altar si naos. In pronaos, fresca din 1564 n-a fost distrusa, ci peste ea a fost aplicata noua fresca datata 1766, pictor fiind Dimitrie Diaconul. In anul 1814, primul registru din altar si naos, icoanele si usile imparatesti au fost pictate in ulei peste pictura din 1732, de Alexe Zugravul din Campulung Muscel. Incepand cu anul 1955, s-a decapat pictura din pronaos executata in 1766 si s-a incastrat pe peretii din muzeul manastirii si pe coridoarele chiliilor. Paraclisul, care detine cateva vitralii donate de poetul George Cosbuc, a fost pictat in 1948 de pictorul Dimitrie Nicolaide. In anul 1994 este pictat pridvorul bisericii de pictorul Grigore Popescu din Campulung Muscel, in stil bizantin. Aici, pentru prima data sunt pictati sfintii straromanii descoperiti si canonizati in ultimii ani.
La manastirea Tismana, Tudor Vladimirescu a organizat o baza de pregatire si de rezistenta a miscarii din 1821.

History monastery:

Located 30 km west of Tg. Jiu and 5 km N of village Tismana this monastic settlement is the oldest Romanian country, with a key role in maintaining the orthodox faith throughout the ages. Like a medieval castle with towers at the corners, Tismana monastery is perched on top of a rock on Mount Starmina surrounded by forested hills and rocky. Southern rock and cave church is Nicodim (26 dec. 1406), leading hermit life. This monastery founded in XIV century with material support of rulers Mission, Radu I (1374-1385) of his sons, Dan I (1385-1386) and Mircea the Elder (1386-1418), was built on the site of a wooden hermitage. It was consecrated on August 15, 1376 the Dormition of the Virgin “, which has been preserved until today. Attested by a charter of Prince Dan I, dated October 3, 1385. Tismana monastery architecture in Byzantine style, specifically the fourteenth century century, approaching the architecture of contemporary churches in Macedonia and Mount Athos, representing the Romanian construction features. actual church of the monastery is built directly on the rock in triconical plan, with towers on the nave, narthex and porch. iconostasis is oak (1765 – 1766), post-Brancoveanu style with floral ornaments in gold plated.
Over time, due to frequent persecution of pagans on our country Tismana monastery suffered several destructions and transformations, many renovations and donations from Basarab rulers of wealthy landowners, the monastery was founded by prince and a strong strategic place. In 1520 Prince Neagoe church covered with lead, in 1541 Prince Radu Paisius frames and doors made big church, small church Matei Basarab made monastic hospital (1650), bell and gave a big bell, big ban of Craiova Cornea Brailoiu rebuilt homes egumenesti cells and also made large donations to the monastery, rebuilt painting Glogoveanu Lady Rock (1733 and 1766) church doors (1782). Important donations and religious objects made Constantin Brancoveanu.
The great church was painted in 1564, the painter Dobromir from Targoviste, subsidized by the great governor Nedelea action. It Byzantine style fresco fresco plaster applied over the first monochrome. In 1732 it was rebuilt and the nave altar painting. In the nave, mural was destroyed in 1564, but it was applied over new fresco dated 1766, the painter Dimitrie Deacon. In 1814, the first register of the altar and the nave, icons and imperial doors were painted in oil over painting in 1732, by Alex Painter of Campulung Muscel. Since 1955, the nave was pickled painting executed in 1766 and was embedded in the walls of the monastery museum corridors and cells. The chapel, which holds some windows donated by the poet George Cosbuc was painted in 1948 by painter Dimitrie Nicolaide. In 1994 the church porch is painted by the painter Gregory Smith in Campulung Muscel Byzantine style. Here, for the first time are painted saints and canonized straromanii discovered in recent years.
Tismana monastery, Tudor Vladimirescu organized a training base and the resistance movement in 1821.

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Update – primăvara 2008

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